Substantial effort has been devoted to combining the high surface area, high thermal and electrical conductivity, and high modulus of graphene with the functionality and processability to produce cost-effective high performance nanocomposites. Graphene-polymer composites commonly are prepared by the physically mixing of graphene and polymers. Graphene, however, tends to agglomerate in the polymer matrix due to strong π-π and van der Waals interactions which leads to deleterious effects on the properties of the nanocomposites. The properties of polymer-graphene nanocomposites strongly depend on effective. Our studies utilize a variety of polymerization techniques to modify graphene with polymeric brushes to enhance the dispersion of graphene in the polymer matrix and the interfacial strength between the graphene and the polymer matrix.